Acknowledging that commanders have sometimes wrongly denied the Purple Heart to soldiers who suffered battlefield concussions, the Army plans to issue new guidance to clarify when such recognition is warranted, Army officials said last week.
In addition, the Army is planning to prioritize appeals from brain-injured soldiers who feel they should not have been turned down for the medal, a hallowed military honor that recognizes those injured in combat.
Gen. Peter Chiarelli, the Army2019s second in command, said he reviewed the Army2019s policies on the Purple Heart and called for the new guidelines as a result of an investigation by ProPublica and NPR . In a report published last September , we found that Army commanders denied Purple Hearts to some soldiers who sustained concussions, despite regulations that make those who suffer such wounds eligible for the medal.
201CWhat was clear to us is that there2019s confusion about concussion and the Purple Heart,201D Chiarelli said. 201CThere2019s confusion on the part of commanders, and there2019s confusion even on the part of doctors.201D
Though the new guidelines do not change the rules concerning eligibility for the Purple Heart, a modern version of an award originally created by George Washington, they add a clarity that should make it easier for soldiers to prove they deserve recognition.
To receive the Purple Heart, the Army2019s current regulations require that a soldier be injured by enemy action and receive documented treatment from a medical officer. The Army's official list of wounds  that "clearly justify" the award includes, "Concussion injuries caused as a result of enemy generated explosions."
The NPR and ProPublica report, however, found that some senior officers and medical officials did not consider concussions serious enough to merit the award. Concussions, also called mild traumatic brain injuries, typically do not leave visible damage. While most people recover from them within days or weeks, civilian studies suggest that about 5 percent to 15 percent of victims may suffer lingering cognitive problems.
The report showed that a senior medical officer in Iraq, Brig. Gen. Joseph Caravalho, issued a 2008 memo that discouraged awarding the Purple Heart in cases in which soldiers required only 201Cminimum medical intervention.201D Other senior medical officials had turned down soldiers for the medal out of concerns that giving it for concussions lessened its value when compared to soldiers who had suffered other types of injuries.
The new guidelines, which will be distributed throughout the Army, provide a checklist that makes clear that concussions requiring any sort of treatment by a medical professional2014including bed rest or over-the-counter headache medication2014is sufficient to meet award criteria.
The guidelines also clarify that soldiers diagnosed and treated by any medical professional, including nurses and physician2019s assistants, are eligible, as long as their standards of care match those a military doctor would apply.
Chiarelli said the checklist was part of an ongoing effort to ensure that soldiers, commanders and medical officers take so-called 201Cinvisible wounds201D seriously. Recognizing soldiers who have suffered concussions drives home the Army2019s commitment to improving care and treatment, he said.
201CIt is very important if we2019re going to get at this stigma issue,201D Chiarelli said. The Purple Heart 201Cshows to everyone that these hidden injuries are truly injuries that affect folks.201D
After the ProPublica and NPR reports, Chiarelli ordered officials at the Army2019s Human Resources Command to review whether Purple Hearts had been erroneously denied.
Col. Tom Quinn, the Army2019s director of soldier programs and services, initially reviewed nine applications from soldiers that had suffered a mild traumatic brain injury. Three soldiers had received the award. Six others had been denied or were still awaiting an answer because commanders disagreed on their cases. Four of the six clearly merited Purple Hearts, the review determined.
The results prompted Chiarelli to order a more-in-depth review this fall, a task made more difficult because the Army does not centralize the award of Purple Hearts, which are often handed out in the field.
Reviewers looked over more than 6,000 paper records, including applications for awards other than Purple Hearts. They found about 100 applications for Purple Hearts concerning soldiers with concussion injuries. Some appeared to have been wrongly denied, Quinn said, but he did not have statistics.
201CWe determined that the guidance is not very clear out in the field and it2019s not being uniformly applied across the force,201D Quinn said. 201CWe think some deserving soldiers may not have been appropriately recognized.201D
Army officials decided the most equitable way to rectify erroneous denials was to ask all soldiers who applied for Purple Hearts for concussions to re-apply.
Quinn promised the Army would move 201Caggressively and impartially201D to resolve the requests as quickly as possible. 201CWe don2019t want to miss anybody. We want to give everybody the same opportunity,201D Quinn said.
The new guidelines will apply only to the Army. Other military branches are reviewing their criteria, however, according to the Military Times. Currently, the Marine Corps recognizes soldiers with the medal only if they were knocked unconscious, even though the medical definition of concussion encompasses blows that leave patients dazed or confused, but conscious.
Rep. Bill Pascrell, D-N.J., has asked the military to apply a uniform standard for awarding the Purple Heart.
Soldiers and their advocates welcomed the Army2019s new guidelines. The Purple Heart brings few medical or financial benefits, but is a tangible symbol of having fought and suffered for one2019s country. It is also the only military award that is considered an entitlement2014an honor earned through individual sacrifice, rather than awarded by a superior officer.
201CIt2019s encouraging that soldiers will finally get the awards they deserve and that their injuries will be acknowledged,201D said Jayna Moceri Brooks, an Army wife and nurse who helped found Recognize the Sacrifice, an organization which helps soldiers with concussions apply for Purple Hearts. 201CIt2019s very encouraging.201D
Nathan Scheller, a retired sergeant, has battled for years to receive a Purple Heart for concussions that he received in Iraq. He expressed cautious optimism that the new guidelines would help.
201CIt2019s about time,201D he said. 201CIf they keep track of the system and they keep track of what2019s going on, I believe it will get better.201D